Comparison of the breeding of hand- and wild-reared snowy plovers

  • Published source details Page G.W., Quinn P.L. & Warriner J.C. (1989) Comparison of the breeding of hand- and wild-reared snowy plovers. Conservation Biology, 3, 198-201.


This study is summarised as evidence for the following.

Action Category

Artificially incubate and hand-rear waders in captivity

Action Link
Bird Conservation
  1. Artificially incubate and hand-rear waders in captivity

    A replicated, controlled trial on coastal habitats in California, USA, in 1986 (Page et al. 1989), found that 79% of 28 artificially incubated Kentish (snowy) plover Charadrius alexandrinus eggs, taken from the wild, hatched (excluding 16 that were thought to be dead or infertile). This compared with 92% of 185 parent-incubated eggs, or 43% including those destroyed by humans or natural causes. Fledging rates were 79% and 38% for hand-reared and wild-reared chicks respectively. In 1987, eight hand-reared birds’ breeding attempts were monitored, alongside 16 wild-reared birds. Hand-reared birds laid eggs later than wild-reared, although this difference was not significant. Hand-reared females tended to nest in less productive areas than wild-reared birds and produced fewer young (two of eight hand-reared birds produced young vs. six of sixteen wild-reared), although this difference was not significant. Artificial incubation consisted of a 37.6oC incubator with 80-85% humidity, with chicks then fed on tubifex worms, supplements, krill and crickets. Birds were released at between 41 and 72 days old.


Output references
What Works 2021 cover

What Works in Conservation

What Works in Conservation provides expert assessments of the effectiveness of actions, based on summarised evidence, in synopses. Subjects covered so far include amphibians, birds, mammals, forests, peatland and control of freshwater invasive species. More are in progress.

More about What Works in Conservation

Download free PDF or purchase
The Conservation Evidence Journal

The Conservation Evidence Journal

An online, free to publish in, open-access journal publishing results from research and projects that test the effectiveness of conservation actions.

Read the latest volume: Volume 21

Go to the CE Journal

Discover more on our blog

Our blog contains the latest news and updates from the Conservation Evidence team, the Conservation Evidence Journal, and our global partners in evidence-based conservation.

Who uses Conservation Evidence?

Meet some of the evidence champions

Endangered Landscape ProgrammeRed List Champion - Arc Kent Wildlife Trust The Rufford Foundation Save the Frogs - Ghana Mauritian Wildlife Supporting Conservation Leaders
Sustainability Dashboard National Biodiversity Network Frog Life The international journey of Conservation - Oryx Cool Farm Alliance UNEP AWFA Bat Conservation InternationalPeople trust for endangered species Vincet Wildlife Trust