Survival and recruitment of captive-reared and wild-reared takahe in Fiordland, New Zealand

  • Published source details Maxwell J.M. & Jamieson I.G. (1997) Survival and recruitment of captive-reared and wild-reared takahe in Fiordland, New Zealand. Conservation Biology, 11, 683-691.


This study is summarised as evidence for the following.

Action Category

Artificially incubate and hand-rear rails in captivity

Action Link
Bird Conservation
  1. Artificially incubate and hand-rear rails in captivity

    A controlled before-and-after study between 1991 and 1994 in Fiordland National Park, South Island, New Zealand (Maxwell & Jamieson 1997), found that post-release survival of hand-reared takahe Porphyrio hochstetteri (formerly P. mantelli) was at least as high as that of wild-reared birds, despite differences between movements and habitat selection (50-100% survival between one and two years for 31 hand-reared birds vs. 0-100% of 12 wild birds; ranges come from different release years). In addition, survival of wild birds between six months and one year old (before hand-reared birds were released) was lower than for captive birds (100% survival for 62 captive-reared birds vs. 25-100% survival for 24 wild birds), especially in years with particularly low temperatures. Causes of death were varied and often unknown. Survival rates did not differ between male and female hand-reared birds, but females were significantly more likely to form pairs than males (89% of nine females forming pairs vs. 25% of eight males). Six of ten captive-reared females nested in the summer after release and two raised a chick to at least six months old. The authors note that low reproductive success in first-time breeders is common. Eggs were taken from the wild and hand-reared using a glove puppet, whilst being played calls of brooding adults (see ‘Use puppets to increase the survival or growth of hand-reared chicks’ for more studies of this intervention). They were moved to outdoor pens at three months old, to larger pens at six months and finally released at approximately one year old.


Output references
What Works 2021 cover

What Works in Conservation

What Works in Conservation provides expert assessments of the effectiveness of actions, based on summarised evidence, in synopses. Subjects covered so far include amphibians, birds, mammals, forests, peatland and control of freshwater invasive species. More are in progress.

More about What Works in Conservation

Download free PDF or purchase
The Conservation Evidence Journal

The Conservation Evidence Journal

An online, free to publish in, open-access journal publishing results from research and projects that test the effectiveness of conservation actions.

Read the latest volume: Volume 19

Go to the CE Journal

Discover more on our blog

Our blog contains the latest news and updates from the Conservation Evidence team, the Conservation Evidence Journal, and our global partners in evidence-based conservation.

Who uses Conservation Evidence?

Meet some of the evidence champions

Endangered Landscape Programme Red List Champion - Arc Kent Wildlife Trust The Rufford Foundation Save the Frogs - Ghana Bern wood Supporting Conservation Leaders National Biodiversity Network Sustainability Dashboard Frog Life The international journey of Conservation - Oryx British trust for ornithology Cool Farm Alliance UNEP AWFA Butterfly Conservation People trust for endangered species Vincet Wildlife Trust