Demography of reintroduced eastern bluebirds and brown-headed nuthatches

  • Published source details Lloyd J.D., Slater G.L. & Snow S. (2009) Demography of reintroduced eastern bluebirds and brown-headed nuthatches. Journal of Wildlife Management, 73, 955-964.


This study is summarised as evidence for the following.

Action Category

Translocate songbirds

Action Link
Bird Conservation
  1. Translocate songbirds

    A before-and-after study in Florida, USA, reintroduced 47 brown-headed nuthatches Sitta pusilla and 62 eastern bluebirds Sialia sialis to Long Pine Key, Everglades National Park, between December 1997 and April 2001 (Lloyd et al. 2009). Although 16 eastern bluebirds and 21 nuthatches failed to establish territories and presumably died shortly after release, population growth was initially observed in both species after the translocations were completed. By 2007, however, the populations of both species were either stable or declining, and only at approximately 10% of their predicted carrying-capacity (200 breeding pairs of each species). Nuthatches and bluebirds were captured at either Big Cypress National Preserve or Naples, Florida, transported and then kept in aviaries at the release site for up to three weeks before reintroduction.


Output references
What Works 2021 cover

What Works in Conservation

What Works in Conservation provides expert assessments of the effectiveness of actions, based on summarised evidence, in synopses. Subjects covered so far include amphibians, birds, mammals, forests, peatland and control of freshwater invasive species. More are in progress.

More about What Works in Conservation

Download free PDF or purchase
The Conservation Evidence Journal

The Conservation Evidence Journal

An online, free to publish in, open-access journal publishing results from research and projects that test the effectiveness of conservation actions.

Read the latest volume: Volume 21

Go to the CE Journal

Discover more on our blog

Our blog contains the latest news and updates from the Conservation Evidence team, the Conservation Evidence Journal, and our global partners in evidence-based conservation.

Who uses Conservation Evidence?

Meet some of the evidence champions

Endangered Landscape ProgrammeRed List Champion - Arc Kent Wildlife Trust The Rufford Foundation Save the Frogs - Ghana Mauritian Wildlife Supporting Conservation Leaders
Sustainability Dashboard National Biodiversity Network Frog Life The international journey of Conservation - Oryx Cool Farm Alliance UNEP AWFA Bat Conservation InternationalPeople trust for endangered species Vincet Wildlife Trust