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Providing evidence to improve practice

Individual study: Supplementary feeding has mixed effects on winter survival of northern bobwhite Colinus virginianus in Oklahoma, USA

Published source details

Townsend D.E., Lochmiller R.L., DeMaso S.J., Leslie D.M., Peoples A.D., Cox S.A. & Parry E.S. (1999) Using Supplemental Food and Its Influence on Survival of Northern Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus). Wildlife Society Bulletin, 27, 1074-1081


This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.

Provide supplementary food for gamebirds to increase adult survival Bird Conservation

A controlled study on two 284 ha mixed-prairie sites in Oklahoma, USA, in 1992-6 (Townsend et al. 1999), found that northern bobwhites Colinus virginianus had higher winter survival in areas supplied with supplementary food in two out of four winters (19-31% survival of 423 fed birds vs. 3-13% of 396 controls), with lower survival in 1994-5 (11% of 200 vs. 22% of 188) and similar survival in 1995-6 (16% of 200 vs. 23% of 193). Twenty eight percent of seed in birds’ crops from the fed area consisted of supplementary food, compared with 6% in birds from the unfed area (783 birds examined). Food consisted of wheat, milo and millet provided in a 55 gallon barrel in the centre of each 8 ha section of the experimental area.