Individual study: Supplementary feeding increases weight gain in greater snow goose Chen caerulescens atlantica goslings
Lindholm A., Gauthier G. & Desrochers A. (1994) Effects of Hatch Date and Food Supply on Gosling Growth in Arctic-Nesting Greater Snow Geese. The Condor, 96, 898-908
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Provide supplementary food for wildfowl to increase reproductive success
A small randomised and controlled ex situ study on Bylot Island, Northwest Territories, Canada, in 1991 (Lindholm et al. 1994), found that greater snow goose Chen caerulescens atlantica goslings provided with commercial duck food ab libitum grew faster and heavier than control goslings, which, except in bad weather when they were in danger of starvation, only had access to naturally-occurring food (weight at 40 days of 2,150-2,580 g for 11 fed goslings vs. 1,260-1,880 g for nine controls). In addition, plumage developed earlier in fed (or early-hatched) goslings (ninth primary emerged at 22-26 days old for fed goslings vs. 27 days for early hatched controls and 35 days for late-hatched controls). However, after controlling for hatching date, fed goslings did not have significantly lower mortality than controls.