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Providing evidence to improve practice

Individual study: American kestrel Falco sparverius population densities increase following the provision of nest boxes in mixed woodlands in Florida, USA

Published source details

Smallwood J.A. & Collopy M.W. (2009) Southeastern American kestrels respond to an increase in the availability of nest cavities in north-central Florida. Journal of Raptor Research, 43, 291-300


This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.

Provide artificial nesting sites for falcons Bird Conservation

A controlled before-and-after study in 1989-93 in Florida, USA (Smallwood & Collopy 2009), found that the population of southeastern American kestrels Falco sparverius paulus in an 3,600 km2 experimental area of dry mixed forests and agricultural land increased following the installation of 388 best boxes in 1990-3 (5.0 birds/100 km2 in 1989 vs. 32.3 birds/100 km2 in 1992). There was no corresponding increase in a similar area without boxes (34.4 birds/100km2 in 1989 vs. 34.9 birds/km2 in 1992). The number of boxes used increased each year, reaching 158 in 1993 and a total of 365 nesting attempts (39 of which were re-nesting). Nesting success averaged 67%, with 2.4 fledglings/nest. This is relatively low compared with previously recorded productivities. Boxes had a base of 19.7 x 23.5 cm, with a 8.9 cm diameter entrance hole.