Study

A comparison of the speed and effectiveness of four fumigants for detaching avian lice from pigeon Columba livia feathers

  • Published source details Visnak R.M. & Dumbacher J.P. (1999) Comparison of Four Fumigants for Removing Avian Lice (Comparación de Cuatro Fumigantes para Remover Mallofaga en Aves). Journal of Field Ornithology, 70, 42-48

Actions

This study is summarised as evidence for the following.

Action Category

Remove ectoparasites from feathers to increase survival or reproductive success

Action Link
Bird Conservation
  1. Remove ectoparasites from feathers to increase survival or reproductive success

    A replicated ex situ study in Hawaii (Visnak & Dumbacher 1999) tested four different fumigants (chloroform, di-ethyl ether, ethyl acetate and carbon dioxide, CO2) to assess the efficiency and speed with which they immobilised and detached slender pigeon lice Columbicola columbae from the feathers of feral pigeons Columba livia. CO2 was fastest in immobilising lice (average of 61 s for three trials of ten lice), followed by chloroform (122 s), ethyl acetate (198 s) and ether (201 s). CO2 was also fastest at detaching lice from feathers (average of 181 s for 30 lice) followed by chloroform (192 s), ethyl acetate (293 s) and ether (307 s). However, CO2 only detached 22% of lice, compared to 33% for ethyl acetate, 56% for ether and 76% for chloroform. In addition, CO (unlike the other chemicals) did not kill the lice, which quickly recovered when given fresh air.

     

Output references

What Works in Conservation

What Works in Conservation provides expert assessments of the effectiveness of actions, based on summarised evidence, in synopses. Subjects covered so far include amphibians, birds, terrestrial mammals, forests, peatland and control of freshwater invasive species. More are in progress.

More about What Works in Conservation

Download free PDF or purchase
The Conservation Evidence Journal

The Conservation Evidence Journal

An online, free to publish in, open-access journal publishing results from research and projects that test the effectiveness of conservation actions.

Read the latest volume: Volume 18

Go to the CE Journal

Discover more on our blog

Our blog contains the latest news and updates from the Conservation Evidence team, the Conservation Evidence Journal, and our global partners in evidence-based conservation.


Who uses Conservation Evidence?

Meet some of the evidence champions

Endangered Landscape Programme Red List Champion - Arc Kent Wildlife Trust The Rufford Foundation Save the Frogs - Ghana Bern wood Supporting Conservation Leaders National Biodiversity Network Sustainability Dashboard Frog Life The international journey of Conservation - Oryx British trust for ornithology Cool Farm Alliance UNEP AWFA Butterfly Conservation People trust for endangered species Vincet Wildlife Trust