Individual study: Effective management for greater flamingos Phoenicopterus roseus in France and Spain
Martos M.R. & Johnson A.R. (1996) Management of nesting sites for greater flamingos. Colonial Waterbirds, 167-183
This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.
Control predators not on islands for waders
A review of management at a coastal wetland in Bouches-du-Rhône, France (Martos & Johnson 1996) described the culling of yellow-legged gulls Larus cachinnans from 1960 until 1980. However, the impact of culling on greater flamingo Phoenicopterus roseus populations could not be separated from that of other management interventions, discussed in ‘Provide artificial nest sites’, ‘Use decoys to attract birds to safe areas’ and ‘Manage water levels in wetlands’.
Provide artificial nesting sites for ibises and flamingos
A before-and-after study reviewing management at two coastal wetland sites in Bouches-du-Rhône, France and in Andalusia, Spain (Martos & Johnson 1996), found that large numbers of greater flamingos Phoenicopterus roseus used artificial nesting islands that were created at the sites. At the site in France, over 12,000 pairs used the island in one year, with 94,000 chicks raised between 1974 and 1993. At least 2,300 pairs used the nesting site in Spain. Islands were created from mud and later reinforced with stones and sand to reduce erosion. Decoy nests were placed on the islands (see ‘Use decoys to attract birds to safe areas’ for details) and 5-10% of the 700 which were erected in France in 1973-4 were used as nests in 1974. This study is also described in ‘Manage water levels in wetlands’ and ‘Control predators not on islands’.
Manage water level in wetlands
A review of management at a coastal wetland in 1978-1982 in Andalusia, Spain (Martos & Johnson 1996), found that water management was successful in ensuring that there was always an area of water close to a greater flamingo Phoenicopterus roseus nesting area. However, the impact of this could not be quantified.
Use decoys to attract birds to safe areas
A review of management at two coastal wetland sites in Bouches-du-Rhône, France and in Andalucia, Spain (Martos & Johnson 1996), found that no greater flamingos Phoenicopterus roseus used an artificial nesting island created in the French site for the first year. However, following the installation of 500 decoy nests (wicker baskets packed with mud), large numbers of flamingos used the site. When 350 extra decoys were added to another part of the island, flamingos colonised it, in preference to areas without decoys. In Spain, newly created nesting habitat was used, with flamingos showing a preference for areas with artificial nests, depressions and scattered broken eggshell. This study is also discussed in ‘Provide artificial nest sites’, ‘Manage water levels in wetlands’ and ‘Control predators not on islands’.