Individual study: Legislative regulation reduces hunting mortality and increases survival rates in American black duck Anas rubripes in USA and Canada
Francis C.M., Sauer J.R. & Serie J.R. (1998) Effect of restrictive harvest regulations on survival and recovery rates of American black ducks. The Journal of Wildlife Management, 62, 1544-1557
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Use legislative regulation to protect wild populations
A before-and-after study in six areas in Canada and the USA (Francis et al. 1998) found that (for areas with more than 100 ducks recovered), the introduction of progressively more restrictive legislation on harvesting American black ducks Anas rubripes in 1967 and 1983 (USA) and 1984 (Canada) appeared to reduce hunting mortality: recovery rates of ringed ducks fell by 14.5% (adults) and 7% (immatures) from 1955-66 to 1967-82 and by 37% (adults) and 27% (immatures) from 1967-82 to 1983-93. Models calculating survival rates, however, estimated that these changes would not necessarily see a corresponding increase in survival.