Individual study: Predator removal increases hatching success and productivity of waterfowl in South Dakota active and idle farmland
Duebbert H.F. & Kantrud H.A. (1974) Upland duck nesting related to land use and predator reduction. The Journal of Wildlife Management, 38, 257-265
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Control predators not on islands for wildfowl
A controlled, replicated study in South Dakota, USA, between April and August 1971 (Duebbert & Kantrud 1974), found that duck egg hatching success was significantly higher, and more ducklings were produced, on both idle fields and active agricultural land when predators were removed, compared to control sites (with predator removal: 85-92% hatching success of 324 nests, producing 22 ducklings/ha on idle fields and 0.7 on active farmland vs. without predator removal: 51-68% of 245 nests and 4.7 ducklings/ha on idle fields and 0.5 on active farmland). Dabbling duck Anas spp., diving duck Aythya spp. and ruddy duck Oxyura jamaicensis nests were studied. Predators removed through poisoning, trapping and shooting were red fox Vulpes vulpes, raccoon Procyon lotor, striped skunk Mephitis mephitis and American badger Taxidea taxus.