Individual study: Artificial nesting rafts are used by three wildfowl species in Pennsylvania, USA
Brenner F.J. & Mondok J.J. (1979) Waterfowl nesting rafts designed for fluctuating water levels. The Journal of Wildlife Management, 43, 979-982
This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.
Provide artificial nesting sites for wildfowl using artificial/floating islands
A replicated study on two marshland sites in Pennsylvania, USA, in 1976-8 (Brenner & Mondok 1979), found that 56% of 20-34 artificial nesting rafts were used by wildfowl, with mallards Anas platyrhynchos using up to 50% of nest rafts, blue-winged teal A. discors up to 9% and Canada geese Branta canadensis up to 5%. Hatching success on rafts was 80%. Rafts had a wooden frame and Styrofoam centre, an arching roof of wire mesh with two anchors of different weights allowing the raft to float up and down with changing water levels. The authors estimate the cost at $0.85/duckling (in 1979 dollars).