Conservation Evidence strives to be as useful to conservationists as possible. Please take our survey to help the team improve our resource.

Providing evidence to improve practice

Individual study: American kestrels Falco sparverius use nest boxes in pine and juniper forests in California, USA

Published source details

Bloom P.H. & Hawks S.J. (1983) Nest box use and reproductive biology of the American kestrel in Lassen County, California. Raptor Research, 17, 9-14


This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.

Provide artificial nesting sites for falcons Bird Conservation

A replicated study in 1976-80 in juniper and pine forests in the Great Basin, California, USA (Bloom & Hawks 1983), found that 31% of 208 nest boxes examined were used by American kestrels Falco sparverius and that 82% of these (53 nest boxes) successfully fledged at least one chick. Clutches contained an average of four eggs, with an estimated fledging rate of 3.1 chicks/active nest box. Nest boxes were 18 x 20 x 33 cm in size, with a 7.6 cm diameter entrance hole and erected at 2-6 m from the ground in trees. The use of boxes increased year on year, from 20% in 1976 to 38% in 1980.