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Providing evidence to improve practice

Individual study: The effects of different repellents on dickcissels Spiza americana in captivity

Published source details

Avery M.L., Tillman E.A. & Laukert C.C. (2001) Evaluation of chemical repellents for reducing crop damage by dickcissels in Venezuela. International Journal of Pest Management, 47, 311-314


This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.

Reduce conflict by deterring birds from taking crops using repellents Bird Conservation

A replicated, randomised and controlled ex situ study in the USA (Avery et al. 2001) found that dickcissels Spiza americana captured in Venezuela consumed 70% less rice if it was treated with methiocarb (at 0.05 g/g rice) or anthraquinone (0.5 g/g), compared to control (untreated) rice offered previously. Methyl anthranilate and lower doses of anthraquinone did not reduce consumption of rice when treated rice was offered after untreated rice. However, when a choice of rice treated with 0.05% or 0.1% anthraquinone or untreated millet was offered at the same time, birds significantly reduced their consumption of rice, with the preference growing over eight days of testing. Rice was offered over five days (control rice on the first, followed by treated rice), with rice and millet being offered over eight days. The number of birds tested is not provided.