Response of vegetation and breeding birds to the removal of cattle on the San Pedro River, Arizona, USA

  • Published source details Krueper D., Bart J. & Rich T.D. (2003) Response of vegetation and breeding birds to the removal of cattle on the San Pedro River, Arizona, USA. Conservation Biology, 17, 607-615.


This study is summarised as evidence for the following.

Action Category

Reduce number of livestock

Action Link
Shrubland and Heathland Conservation
  1. Reduce number of livestock

    A before-and-after study in 1986–1992 in desert scrub in Arizona, USA (Krueper et al. 2003) found that removal of cattle did not affect the abundance of shrubs, herbaceous plants, or trees. Five years after cattle had been removed, the density of shrubs was not significantly higher than in the same area before cattle removal (data reported as a density index). The same pattern was seen for herbaceous plants and trees. In 1987 all cattle were removed from the area. Prior to removal the stocking rate of the area was approximately 0.5 cattle/ha. Two transects, measuring 0.8–1.6 km in length were established in the area. Vegetation was sampled along the transects in September/October in 1986, 1989, and 1992.

    (Summarised by: Phil Martin)

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