Individual study: Measures taken to preserve arable weeds and their associated communities in central Europe
Schumacher W. (1987) Measures taken to preserve arable weeds and their associated communities in central Europe. British Crop Protection Council Monographs, 35, 109-112
This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.
Leave headlands in fields unsprayed (conservation headlands)
A study of cereal fields on 20 farms in Germany between 1978 and 1981 (Schumacher 1987) found that unsprayed field margins had a positive effect on rare and endangered arable weeds. Results are not provided, but authors note that the project was such a success, particularly on the calcareous soils of the Eifel Mountains and intensively farmed soils of the Lower Rhine, that various states in the Federal Republic began providing financial support to protect biodiversity. Farmers made a total of 15 km, later 20 km of 2-3 m wide unsprayed field margins within their cereal fields to protect arable weeds.