Individual study: Reduced pesticides and between tree planting resulted in a higher diversity of spiders in an orchard in the Czech Republic
Pekar S. (1999) Effect of IPM practices and conventional spraying on spider population dynamics in an apple orchard. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 73, 155-166
This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.
Reduce fertilizer, pesticide or herbicide use generally
A study of spiders (Araneae) in an apple orchard in the Czech Republic (Pekar 1999) found that an integrated pest management strategy resulted in higher spider diversity than conventional pesticide applications. The number of spider species was highest on the plot with reduced fungicide and no herbicide applications and mixed planting (49 species, 1,212 spiders), followed by reduced fungicide and no herbicide applications and sown grass (45 species, 1,497 spiders), conventional spraying resulted in the lowest number of species (39 species, 1,252 spiders). Conventional applications caused much greater fluctuations in late summer spider populations and had lower numbers of spiders after winter (4/plot) than plots under integrated pest management (9-10/plot). Half of the 2 ha orchard received normal applications of fungicides and herbicides, the other half received less frequent applications of fungicides and no herbicides (integrated pest management). Half of the latter was sown with buckwheat Fagopyrum esculentum, common millet Panicum miliaceum, dill Anethum graveolens, and horse bean Faba vulgaris in 1992-1993 and coriander Coriandrum sativum in 1994-1995. The other half was sown with red fescue Festuca rubra. Spiders were sampled by tapping single branches (25 trees) over a 0.25 m² cloth and sweeping ground cover with a 0.25 m² net at weekly intervals (April-October 1992-1995). Cardboard traps (30 x 100 cm²) were also attached to 10 tree trunks in each plot overwinter at a height of 50 cm.