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Providing evidence to improve practice

Individual study: Green manuring with undersown ryegrass resulted in an increase in recruitment of adult ground beetles (Carabidae) in Finland

Published source details

Helenius J. & Tolonen T. (1994) Enhancement of generalist aphid predators in cereals: effect of green manuring on recruitment of ground beetles. IOBC/wprs Bulletin, 17, 201-210


This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.

Undersow spring cereals, with clover for example Farmland Conservation

A replicated, controlled, randomized study of an undersown cereal field from 1989 to 1991 in Helsinki, Finland (Helenius & Tolonen 1994) found that green manuring with undersown rye grass Lolium spp. resulted in a 50% increase in new generation adult ground beetles (Carabidae). A total of 33 species of ground beetles were caught. For three of the most common species, plots that had received rye grass green manuring (0.5 t/ha) in autumn 1990 resulted in a 50% increase in new generation adults in 1991 compared to mono-cropped plots (Trechus discus: 681 vs 442, Clivina fossor: 160 vs 137, Bembidion guttula: 108 vs 61). Rye grass provided more green manure than clover Trifolium spp. (49-412 vs 216-474 g/m²). A 1 ha block of the field was divided into 25 x 25 m plots with treatments in a 4 x 4 Latin square design. Clover or grass were sown straight after the cereal and were ploughed into the soil as a green manure in the autumn. Plant biomass was sampled within 0.25 x 0.5 m quadrats just before ploughing. Emergence rates of ground beetles were sampled using enclosures (0.5 x 0.5 m²) with four pitfall traps. Traps were emptied every seven days over a sequence of three (1989) or five (1990 and 1991) trapping periods of approximately one month (June-September).