Conservation Evidence strives to be as useful to conservationists as possible. Please take our survey to help the team improve our resource.

Providing evidence to improve practice

Individual study: The effect of cereal headland treatments on carabid communities.

Published source details

Hawthorne A. & Hassall M. (1995) The effect of cereal headland treatments on carabid communities. Pages 185-198 in: Arthropod Natural Enemies in Arable Land I - Density, Spatial Heterogeneity and Dispersal, Acta Jutlandica.


This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.

Create uncultivated margins around intensive arable or pasture fields Farmland Conservation

A small replicated, controlled study from 1990 to 1992 in East Anglia, UK (Hawthorne & Hassall 1995) found that ground beetles (Carabidae) were more abundant in uncropped headlands than conservation headlands (cropped, no herbicides or insecticides) and sprayed headlands (as main wheat field). Uncropped strips had a significantly greater abundance of ground beetles (2,487) compared to conservation (1,474) and sprayed headlands (938). Species diversity tended to be higher in uncropped headlands (43) compared to conservation (41) and sprayed headlands (35). Different species reacted differently to treatments. There were a number of species that were restricted to uncropped or conservation headlands and one restricted to sprayed headlands. Numbers of species and overall abundance varied with season. Two 120 m strips of each treatment were established in a randomized block design along one headland of a 19 ha wheat field. Ground beetles were sampled using 3-5 pitfall traps in the middle of each plot, 3 m from the field boundary. Catches were collected every 1-2 weeks from February to August. Aphid numbers were also sampled but are not presented here.

Leave headlands in fields unsprayed (conservation headlands) Farmland Conservation

A small replicated, controlled study from 1990 to 1992 of the headland (outer 6 m) of a wheat field at Ixworth Thorpe, on the southern edge of Breckland in East Anglia, UK (Hawthorne & Hassall 1995) found that ground beetles (Carabidae) were more abundant in conservation headlands (no herbicides or insecticides) than sprayed headlands (as main field). Conservation headlands had a significantly greater abundance of ground beetles (1474) than sprayed headlands (938). Species diversity was higher in conservation headlands (41) than sprayed headlands (35). Different species reacted differently to treatments. There were a number of species that were restricted to conservation headlands and one restricted to sprayed headlands. Numbers of species and overall abundance varied with season. Two 120 m strips of each treatment were established in a randomized block design along one headland of the 19 ha field. Ground beetles were sampled using 3-5 pitfall traps in the middle of each plot, 3 m from the field boundary. Catches were collected every 1-2 weeks from February-August. Aphid (Aphidoidea) numbers were also sampled but are not presented here.