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Individual study: Nine years after planting, only two out of 85 carabid beetle (Coleoptera) species had used a habitat strip in arable farmland in Germany as a dispersal corridor

Published source details

Gruttke H. (1994) Dispersal of carabid species along a linear sequence of young hedge plantations. Pages 299-303 in: K. Desender (ed.) Carabid beetles: ecology and evolution. Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands.


This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.

Plant new hedges Farmland Conservation

An unreplicated site comparison study from 1982 to 1991 in western Germany (Gruttke 1994) (same study as Gruttke & Willecke 2000) found that only two ground beetle (Carabidae) species (out of 85 sampled) used a sequence of young hedge plantations as stepping stones for their dispersal. Two forest or forest-edge ground beetle species, present in nearby semi-natural habitat, gradually appeared along a meadow and hedge strip over the nine years following hedge planting (1982 to 1990). Twenty-five ground beetle species from the semi-natural habitat showed no tendency to use the hedge plantations as stepping stones. In 1982, nine small hedge islands (each 400 m2) were planted at intervals along a 10 m-wide meadow strip, attached at one end to mixed wooded and open semi-natural habitats (woods, hedge fragments, ponds surrounded by small reeds, wet and dry meadows), and extending 1.6 km into arable fields. Ground beetles were sampled using six pitfall traps/section in hedge islands and meadow strips from 1982 to 1990. Semi-natural habitats and adjacent arable fields were sampled from 1990 to 1991.

Connect areas of natural or semi-natural habitat Farmland Conservation

An unreplicated site comparison study from 1982 to 1991 in western Germany (Gruttke 1994) (same study as (Gruttke & Willecke 2000)) found that out of 85 ground beetle (Carabidae) species sampled, only two used a young habitat strip as a dispersal corridor. The two ground beetle species (Carabus nemoralis and Notiophilus palustris) which appeared to use a meadow and hedge strip as a dispersal corridor were initially present in the semi-natural source habitat and gradually appeared along the strip over the 9 years following planting (1982 to 1990). Although three other ground beetle species also immigrated to the corridor, they were able to fly, so the linear shape of the habitat was unlikely to be important to them and it could not be confirmed that they originated from the studied source habitat. Twenty-five ground beetle species present in the source habitat showed no tendency to disperse to the corridor. The corridor was established in 1982, consisting of a 1.6 km-long, 10 m-wide meadow strip, along which nine 400 m2 hedge islands were planted as stepping stones. It was attached at one end to an area of old mixed semi-natural habitat (woods, hedge fragments, ponds surrounded by small reeds and wet and dry meadows) and extended into intensive arable farmland. Ground beetles were sampled along the corridor using six pitfall traps in hedge islands and meadow strips from 1982 to 1990. Semi-natural habitats and adjacent arable fields were sampled from 1990 to 1991.