Individual study: Bird community response to ponderosa pine Pinus ponderosa forest restoration by tree-thinning and understory burning in Okanogan-Wenatchee National Forest, Washington, USA
Gaines W.L., Haggard M., Lehmkuhl J.F., Lyons A.L. & Harrod R.J. (2007) Short-term response of land birds to ponderosa pine restoration. Restoration Ecology, 15, 670-678
This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.
Thin trees within forests
A replicated, randomised, controlled study in 1998-2005 in 12 ponderosa pine stands (15-20 ha) in the North Cascade Range, Washington, USA (Gaines et al. 2007), found that there were no differences in bird densities between four stands with low-retention thinning and prescribed burning and those with high retention thinning and burning (averages of 13 birds/ha for both). This study is described in detail in ‘Use prescribed burning’.
Use prescribed burning on pine forests
A replicated, randomised, controlled study in 1998-2005 in 12 ponderosa pine stands (15-20 ha) in the North Cascade Range, Washington, USA (Gaines et al. 2007), found that there was a trend towards higher bird density in restored stands, compared to controls (13 birds/ha in eight restored stands vs. 10 in four controls). Management consisted of thinning and understorey burning. Thinning took place in 1998-1999, with burns in spring 2000 and 2004. Breeding birds were censused in 2001 and 2005. White-headed woodpecker Picoides albolarvatus and western bluebird Sialia mexicana, Cassin’s finch Carpodacus casinii and yellow-rumped warbler Dendroica coronata had higher densities in treated stands. Mountain chickadee Poecile gambeli, western tanager Piranga ludoviciana and red-breasted nuthatch Sitta canadensis were more common in control stands.