Individual study: Chemical repellents deter European starlings Sturnus vulgaris from drinking pond water containing cyanide: a laboratory study, Philadelphia, USA
Clark L. & Shah P.S. (1993) Chemical bird repellents: possible use in cyanide ponds. Journal of Wildlife Management, 57, 657-664
This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.
Use repellents to deter birds from landing on pools polluted by mining
A randomised, replicated and controlled trial in captivity in Philadelphia, USA (Clark & Shah 1993), found that 36 common starlings Sturnus vulgaris consumed less mine-pond water if it was treated with bird repellents, compared to untreated mine-pond water. The repellents tested were: o-aminoacetophenone (OAP), 2-amino-4,5-dimethoxyacetophenone, methyl anthranilate, 4-ketobenztriazine (4KBT) and veratryl amine, all at concentrations of 0.5% by volume. The most effective repellent was OAP and the least effective 4KBT; there were no significant differences between effectiveness of any of the other chemicals. All repellents were effective for five weeks on water which was pH 10.6 and contained 150 ppm sodium cyanide.