Conservation Evidence strives to be as useful to conservationists as possible. Please take our survey to help the team improve our resource.

Providing evidence to improve practice

Individual study: Revegetation of surface coal-mine sites provides habitat for breeding grassland birds at Chinnok and Universal Mines, Indiana, USA

Published source details

Galligan E.W., Devault T.L. & Lima S.L. (2006) Nesting success of grassland and savanna birds on reclaimed surface coal mines of the Midwestern United States. Wilson Journal of Ornithology, 118, 537-546


This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.

Restore or create grasslands Bird Conservation

A study in 1999-2000 on the reclaimed Chinook mine (39-67 ha) and Universal mine sites in southwest Indiana, USA (Galligan et al. 2006), found 465 bird nests of 31 species at Chinook and 446 at Universal. Red-winged blackbird, eastern meadowlark, field sparrow, dickcissel, grasshopper sparrow and Henslow's sparrow were the commonest nesting birds. Reproductive success (i.e. nests that fledged young) of key species, e.g. Henslow's sparrow (9 of 21 nests fledged young) and grasshopper sparrow (26 of 41), and of several other species was comparable with that in non-mined grassland habitats. Both sites were seeded with (mostly) non-native grasses and were situated in open grassland; shrub/savanna; and grassland with patches of shrubs.