Individual study: Effect of herbicide treatment of Typha-dominated wetlands on black terns Chlidonias niger and seven duck species near Lakota, North Dakota, USA
Linz G.M. & Blixt D.C. (1997) Black terns benefit from cattail management in the northern Great Plains. Colonial Waterbirds, 20, 617-621
This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.
Treat wetlands with herbicide
A randomised replicated study in 24 inland wetlands in North Dakota, USA (Linz & Blixt 1997), found that the number of black terns Chlidonias niger using sites in June 1991-1993 was positively correlated with the areas of open water and dead cattail Typha spp. present, following the aerial application of glyphosate during July 1990 and 1991. The numbers of mallard Anas platyrhynchos, blue-winged teal A. discors, northern shoveler A. clypeata, gadwall A. strepera, northern pintail A. acuta, redhead Aythya americana and ruddy duck Oxyura jamaicensis were all correlated with the amount of open water and the amount of cover present. Glyphosate was sprayed over 90%, 70% or 50% of the sites.