Individual study: Patches of bare ground provide nesting sites for solitary bees on an upland prairie restoration site at Fern Ridge Reservoir, Willamette Valley, Oregon, USA
Severns P. (2004) Creating bare ground increases presence of native pollinators in Kincaid's lupine seeding plots (Oregon). Ecological Restoration, 22, 234-235
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Create patches of bare ground for ground-nesting bees
Severns (2004) created 1 m2 plots of mostly bare ground whilst planting seeds of the endangered legume Kincaid's lupine Lupine sulphureus spp. kincaidii, in an upland prairie restoration project in Oregon, USA. The bare ground was colonised by an increasing number of nesting solitary bees, mostly of the common species Lasioglossum anhypops, over the following three years. Three years later, there were 320 nests over 30 plots.