Individual study: Abundance and species richness of bumblebees greater on organic than conventional farms in Sweden, but only in intensive, homogenous arable landscapes
Rundlöf M., Nilsson H. & Smith H.G. (2008) Interacting effects of farming practice and landscape context on bumble bees. Biological Conservation, 141, 417-426
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Convert to organic farming
Rundlöf et al. (2008) surveyed bumblebees Bombus spp. on 12 pairs of organic and conventional farms in Sweden, and found significantly more bumblebees and bumblebee species on organic than conventional farms (on average 7.7 and 4.9 species/farm on organic and conventional farms respectively). This difference between organic and conventional farms was not statistically significant when only the six pairs of farms in heterogenous (mixed) farming landscapes, with smaller field sizes and more grassland, were considered. So organic farming had a greater effect on wild bumblebees in intensive, homogenous arable landscapes.