Monitoring solitary bees in modified wildland habitats: implications for bee ecology and conservation

  • Published source details Frankie G.W., Thorp R.W., Newstrom-Lloyd L.E., Rizzardi M.A., Barthell J.F., Griswold T.L., & Kappagoda S. (1998) Monitoring solitary bees in modified wildland habitats: implications for bee ecology and conservation. Environmental Entomology, 27, 1137-1148.


This study is summarised as evidence for the following.

Action Category

Provide artificial nest sites for solitary bees

Action Link
Bee Conservation
  1. Provide artificial nest sites for solitary bees

    Frankie et al. (1998) recorded 23 species of bee, mostly from the genera Megachile and Osmia, using nine drilled wooden nest boxes on each of six woodland, shrubland and riparian reserves over three years in northern central California, USA. Three non-native species of Megachile nested in the boxes - M. apicalis, M. rotundata and M. concinna. The former two species were common, but M. concinna was uncommon, recorded less than 12 times overall.

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