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Providing evidence to improve practice

Individual study: Use of nest boxes by solitary bees and wasps at six wildlife reserves in northern central California, USA

Published source details

Frankie G.W., Thorp R.W., Newstrom-Lloyd L.E., Rizzardi M.A., Barthell J.F., Griswold T.L., & Kappagoda S. (1998) Monitoring solitary bees in modified wildland habitats: implications for bee ecology and conservation. Environmental Entomology, 27, 1137-1148


This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.

Provide artificial nest sites for solitary bees Bee Conservation

Frankie et al. (1998) recorded 23 species of bee, mostly from the genera Megachile and Osmia, using nine drilled wooden nest boxes on each of six woodland, shrubland and riparian reserves over three years in northern central California, USA. Three non-native species of Megachile nested in the boxes - M. apicalis, M. rotundata and M. concinna. The former two species were common, but M. concinna was uncommon, recorded less than 12 times overall.