Individual study: Adding a young male pupa stimulates egg-laying in queen buff-tailed bumblebees Bombus terrestris; laboratory studies at Kyungpook National University, Taegu, South Korea
Kwon Y.J., Saeed S. & Duchateau M.J. (2003) Stimulation of colony initiation and colony development in Bombus terrestris by adding a male pupa: the influence of age and orientation. Apidologie, 34, 429-437
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Rear declining bumblebees in captivity
Kwon et al. (2003) found that confining 100 B. terrestris queens with a young male pupa 1-2 days old stimulated egg laying and improved overall colony productivity compared to queens that had been confined with older pupae (9-11 days old). Eighty per cent of the 20 queens given a 1-2 day old pupa produced a colony, compared to 30% of 20 queens given a 9-11 day old pupa.