The decline of kakapo Strigops habroptilus and attempts at conservation by translocation

  • Published source details Lloyd B.D. & Powlesland R.G. (1994) The decline of kakapo Strigops habroptilus and attempts at conservation by translocation. Biological Conservation, 69, 75-85.


This study is summarised as evidence for the following.

Action Category

Translocate parrots

Action Link
Bird Conservation
  1. Translocate parrots

    A replicated 1994 study on four off-shore islands in New Zealand (Lloyd & Powlesland 1994) found that survival of translocated kakapos Strigops habroptila was high (63-85% until 1992, see Clout & Merton 1995 for details). However, reproduction was extremely low, with only two young reared to independence and a third hand-reared in captivity. Between 1974 and 1992, 65 kakapo were translocated from Stewart Island (1,746 km2, South Island) to Maud Island (300 ha, South Island; 1974-81: nine birds; 1989-91; six birds), Little Barrier Island (3,055 ha; 1982: 22 birds), Codfish Island (1,480 ha; 1987-92: 30 birds) and Mana Island (217 ha; 1992: two males). Translocations occurred because kakapos were suffering extremely high mortality rates due to predation by introduced mammalian predators (particularly cats Felis catus and stoats Mustela erminea) on Stewart Island. Such predators were removed from target islands prior to translocations.


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