Individual study: Effect of nest box orientation on nesting success of American kestrels Falco sparverius in Ada and Canyon counties, Idaho, USA
Butler M.W., Whitman B.A. & Dufty A.M. Jr. (2009) Nest box temperature and hatching success of American kestrels varies with nest box orientation. Wilson Journal of Ornithology, 121, 778-782
This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.
Provide artificial nesting sites for falcons
A replicated study in 2005 in sagebrush steppe and agricultural fields in Idaho, USA (Butler et al. 2009 ), found that 71% of 59 nest boxes were occupied by American kestrels Falco sparverius. Box orientation did not significantly affect occupancy rates (although no east-facing boxes were occupied) but did affect hatching success (43% of 21 southwest-facing nest boxes unsuccessful vs. 25% of 12 southeast-facing boxes and 0% for nine facing north-west). West-facing boxes were approximately 0.6°C cooler on average than east- and south-facing boxes, and also less humid. Nest boxes were 21 x 21 x 46 cm and erected at 2.5-3.0 m off the ground on utility poles.