Strong constraints to independent nesting in a facultatively social bee: quantifying the effects of enemies-at-the-nest

  • Published source details Zammit J., Hogendoorn K. & Schwarz M.P. (2008) Strong constraints to independent nesting in a facultatively social bee: quantifying the effects of enemies-at-the-nest. Insectes Sociaux, 55, 74-78.


This study is summarised as evidence for the following.

Action Category

Exclude ants from solitary bee nesting sites

Action Link
Bee Conservation
  1. Exclude ants from solitary bee nesting sites

    In a replicated controlled trial in Cobboboonee State Forest, Victoria, Australia, 50 single female nests of the endemic allodapine bee Exonuera nigrescens were protected from ants using two plastic cups and the sticky barrier Tanglefoot (Zammit et al. 2008). Fifty control nests were not protected. The nests, made in old flowering stems of the grass tree Xanthorrhoea, were set out in groups of four, one protected and one unprotected. Protected nests were more productive, with an average of 3.6 young per adult female, compared to 1.6 young per adult female in control nests.

Output references
What Works 2021 cover

What Works in Conservation

What Works in Conservation provides expert assessments of the effectiveness of actions, based on summarised evidence, in synopses. Subjects covered so far include amphibians, birds, mammals, forests, peatland and control of freshwater invasive species. More are in progress.

More about What Works in Conservation

Download free PDF or purchase
The Conservation Evidence Journal

The Conservation Evidence Journal

An online, free to publish in, open-access journal publishing results from research and projects that test the effectiveness of conservation actions.

Read the latest volume: Volume 21

Go to the CE Journal

Discover more on our blog

Our blog contains the latest news and updates from the Conservation Evidence team, the Conservation Evidence Journal, and our global partners in evidence-based conservation.

Who uses Conservation Evidence?

Meet some of the evidence champions

Endangered Landscape ProgrammeRed List Champion - Arc Kent Wildlife Trust The Rufford Foundation Save the Frogs - Ghana Mauritian Wildlife Supporting Conservation Leaders
Sustainability Dashboard National Biodiversity Network Frog Life The international journey of Conservation - Oryx Cool Farm Alliance UNEP AWFA Bat Conservation InternationalPeople trust for endangered species Vincet Wildlife Trust