The black-bellied whistling duck in Mexico-from traditional use to sustainable management?

  • Published source details Feekes F. (1991) The black-bellied whistling duck in Mexico-from traditional use to sustainable management?. Biological Conservation, 56, 123-131.


This study is summarised as evidence for the following.

Action Category

Provide artificial nesting sites for wildfowl

Action Link
Bird Conservation
  1. Provide artificial nesting sites for wildfowl

    A replicated study over four breeding seasons in 1985-8 at two lakes in Veracruz, Mexico (Feekes 1991), found that black-bellied whistling ducks Dendrocygna autumnalis using nest boxes had very low reproductive success (11.1% success for nine attempts in 1986, 6.6% for 30 attempts in 1987-8), mainly because of predation by opossums Didelphis spp., raccoons Procyon lotor and humans. Occupancy rates varied, with one of 16 pairs using boxes in 1985; 17-30% of 30 pairs in 1986 and 40-75% of 20 pairs in both 1987 and 1988. Nest boxes were made from either liana baskets or hollowed palm trunks, with the latter being the only nests used (except for a single basket in 1985). Thirteen baskets were provided in 1985 and ten in 1986; ten trunks were provided in 1986, 16 in 1987 and 17 in 1988. Boxes were placed in positions similar to naturally occurring nests and checked every two weeks during the breeding seasons. Opossums also frequently occupied nest boxes.


Output references
What Works 2021 cover

What Works in Conservation

What Works in Conservation provides expert assessments of the effectiveness of actions, based on summarised evidence, in synopses. Subjects covered so far include amphibians, birds, mammals, forests, peatland and control of freshwater invasive species. More are in progress.

More about What Works in Conservation

Download free PDF or purchase
The Conservation Evidence Journal

The Conservation Evidence Journal

An online, free to publish in, open-access journal publishing results from research and projects that test the effectiveness of conservation actions.

Read the latest volume: Volume 21

Go to the CE Journal

Discover more on our blog

Our blog contains the latest news and updates from the Conservation Evidence team, the Conservation Evidence Journal, and our global partners in evidence-based conservation.

Who uses Conservation Evidence?

Meet some of the evidence champions

Endangered Landscape ProgrammeRed List Champion - Arc Kent Wildlife Trust The Rufford Foundation Save the Frogs - Ghana Mauritian Wildlife Supporting Conservation Leaders
Sustainability Dashboard National Biodiversity Network Frog Life The international journey of Conservation - Oryx Cool Farm Alliance UNEP AWFA Bat Conservation InternationalPeople trust for endangered species Vincet Wildlife Trust