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Providing evidence to improve practice

Individual study: The use of translocation to establish populations of common frog Rana temporaria and common toad Bufo bufo at the Boardwalks Reserve, Peterborough, Cambridgeshire, England

Published source details

Cooke A.S. & Oldham R.S. (1995) Establishment of populations of the common frog Rana temporaria and common toad Bufo bufo in a newly created reserve following translocation. Herpetological Journal, 5, 173-180


This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.

Translocate frogs Amphibian Conservation

A replicated study in 1986–1993 of 13 created ponds in a reserve in England, UK (Cooke & Oldham 1995) found that translocating common frog Rana temporaria eggs established breeding populations. The first naturally laid eggs were recorded in 1988 (92 clumps). The peak count was in 1989 with 162 egg clumps. Numbers of emerged froglets were high in the first year, but low in the second. Up to 12–13% of eggs were lost to collection and 16–39% to desiccation each year. In 1985, 13 ponds were excavated. Local frog spawn was introduced to the ponds in spring 1986 (200 clumps), 1987 (150), 1990 (8), 1991 (4) and 1993 (14). Monitoring was 1–3 times/week in spring 1986–1993.

 

Create ponds for frogs Amphibian Conservation

A before-and-after study in 1986–1993 of 13 created ponds in a marsh reserve in Peterborough, England, UK (Cooke & Oldham 1995) found that translocation resulted in breeding populations of common frog Rana temporaria. Froglets emerged in 1986 and 1987 and the first naturally laid eggs were recorded in 1988 for frogs (peak in 1989: 162 clumps). Up to 16–39% of eggs were lost to desiccation each year. In 1985, 13 ponds were excavated. Local frog eggs were introduced to the ponds in spring 1986 (200 clumps), 1987 (150), 1990 (8), 1991 (4) and 1993 (14). Adults and eggs were monitored 1–3 times/week in spring 1986–1993.

 

Create ponds for toads Amphibian Conservation

A before-and-after study in 1986–1993 of 13 created ponds in a marsh reserve in Peterborough, England, UK (Cooke & Oldham 1995) found that translocation resulted in breeding populations of common toad Bufo bufo. Toadlets emerged in 1986 and 1987 and the first naturally laid eggs were recorded in 1987. In 1988, 64% of male and 89% of female toads captured were marked, suggesting that most breeding adults were introduced rather than natural colonizers. The proportion dropped to 15% in 1990 suggesting a 64% loss of males in the first year, reducing to 39% in the second and 42% in the third year. The toad population was estimated at 200–300 adults in 1993. Up to 16–39% of eggs were lost to desiccation each year. In 1985, 13 ponds were excavated. Half a million toad eggs were introduced in spring 1986 and 5,911 marked adults in 1987. Adults and eggs were monitored 1–3 times/week in spring 1986–1993.

 

Translocate toads Amphibian Conservation

A replicated study in 1986–1993 of 13 created ponds in a reserve in England, UK (Cooke & Oldham 1995) found that translocated eggs and adult common toads Bufo bufo established breeding populations. The first naturally laid eggs were recorded in the second year. In 1988, 64% of male and 89% of female toads captured were already marked, suggesting that most adults were introduced rather than natural colonizers. The proportion marked dropped to 15% in 1990 suggesting a 64% loss of male toads in the first year, reducing to 39% in the second and 42% in the third year. The toad population was estimated at 200–300 adults in 1993. Up to 12–13% of eggs were lost to collection and 16–39% to desiccation each year. In 1985, 13 ponds were excavated. Half a million toad eggs were introduced in 1986 and 5,911 marked adults in 1987. Adults and eggs were monitored 1–3 times/week in spring 1986–1993.