Behaviour and ecology of the subtropical bee Xylocopa fenestrata F. 8. Life cycle, seasonal mortality, parasites and sex ratio

  • Published source details Sihag R.C. (1993) Behaviour and ecology of the subtropical bee Xylocopa fenestrata F. 8. Life cycle, seasonal mortality, parasites and sex ratio. Journal of Apicultural Research, 32, 109-114.


This study is summarised as evidence for the following.

Action Category

Provide artificial nest sites for solitary bees

Action Link
Bee Conservation
  1. Provide artificial nest sites for solitary bees

    Sihag (1993b) measured rates of mortality and parasitism for X. fenestrata nesting in stems of castor or sarkanda provided on agricultural land in Haryana, India, from 1985-1987. Up to seven generations a year were reared in stems 23-27 cm long, 10-12 mm in diameter. Cell numbers peaked in early summer (April to mid-May) and early autumn (late September to October). Mortality rates were highest in the late summer (mid-May to late-July), when parasitism was 33-36% and mortality 6-20%. Only two brood parasite species were seen, and the wasp Monodontomerus obscurus was responsible for 90% of the parasitism. Other larval mortality was caused mainly by ants and other predators. Birds, lizards and rodents destroyed some nests in domiciles not protected by wire cages (not quantified). No mortality caused by fungal or bacterial agents was observed.

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