Study

Behaviour and ecology of the subtropical bee Xylocopa fenestrata F. 8. Life cycle, seasonal mortality, parasites and sex ratio

  • Published source details Sihag R.C. (1993) Behaviour and ecology of the subtropical bee Xylocopa fenestrata F. 8. Life cycle, seasonal mortality, parasites and sex ratio. Journal of Apicultural Research, 32, 109-114.

Actions

This study is summarised as evidence for the following.

Action Category

Provide artificial nest sites for solitary bees

Action Link
Bee Conservation
  1. Provide artificial nest sites for solitary bees

    Sihag (1993b) measured rates of mortality and parasitism for X. fenestrata nesting in stems of castor or sarkanda provided on agricultural land in Haryana, India, from 1985-1987. Up to seven generations a year were reared in stems 23-27 cm long, 10-12 mm in diameter. Cell numbers peaked in early summer (April to mid-May) and early autumn (late September to October). Mortality rates were highest in the late summer (mid-May to late-July), when parasitism was 33-36% and mortality 6-20%. Only two brood parasite species were seen, and the wasp Monodontomerus obscurus was responsible for 90% of the parasitism. Other larval mortality was caused mainly by ants and other predators. Birds, lizards and rodents destroyed some nests in domiciles not protected by wire cages (not quantified). No mortality caused by fungal or bacterial agents was observed.

Output references
What Works 2021 cover

What Works in Conservation

What Works in Conservation provides expert assessments of the effectiveness of actions, based on summarised evidence, in synopses. Subjects covered so far include amphibians, birds, mammals, forests, peatland and control of freshwater invasive species. More are in progress.

More about What Works in Conservation

Download free PDF or purchase
The Conservation Evidence Journal

The Conservation Evidence Journal

An online, free to publish in, open-access journal publishing results from research and projects that test the effectiveness of conservation actions.

Read the latest volume: Volume 18

Go to the CE Journal

Discover more on our blog

Our blog contains the latest news and updates from the Conservation Evidence team, the Conservation Evidence Journal, and our global partners in evidence-based conservation.


Who uses Conservation Evidence?

Meet some of the evidence champions

Endangered Landscape Programme Red List Champion - Arc Kent Wildlife Trust The Rufford Foundation Save the Frogs - Ghana Bern wood Supporting Conservation Leaders National Biodiversity Network Sustainability Dashboard Frog Life The international journey of Conservation - Oryx British trust for ornithology Cool Farm Alliance UNEP AWFA Butterfly Conservation People trust for endangered species Vincet Wildlife Trust