Individual study: Effectiveness of shark liver oil at deterring seabirds from attending fishing vessels in the Hauraki Gulf and off the coast of Kaikoura, New Zealand
Norden W.S. & Pierre J.P. (2007) Exploiting sensory ecology to reduce seabird by-catch. Emu, 107, 38-43
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Use shark liver oil to reduce seabird bycatch
One replicated, controlled experiment off Kaikoura, South Island, New Zealand, in 2005 (Norden & Pierre 2007) found no significant differences in the number of seabirds following a bait-laying boat when it was dripping shark liver oil (both commercially available and made by fishermen) behind the boat, compared to control conditions. However, a second trial in April 2006 off Hauraki Gulf, North Island, New Zealand found the number of seabirds following a bait-laying boat decreased significantly faster if fisherman-produced shark liver oil was dripped behind the boat, compared to controls dripping seawater. Other fish oils (anchovy, pollock and commercially available shark liver oil) did not have a significant impact on the number of following birds. However, all oils except for anchovy did significantly reduce the number of dives made by seabirds.