Individual study: Effect of supplementary feeding on survival of varied tits Parus varius near Joetsu-shi, Chubu region, Japan
Nakamura M. & Kubota H. (1998) Food supply in early spring and stability of pair bonds in the varied tit Parus varius. Journal of Avian Biology, 29, 201-205
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Provide supplementary food for songbirds to increase adult survival
A small controlled before-and-after trial in two mixed woodlands on Honshu, Japan in the spring of 1996 (Nakamura & Kubota 1998) found that survival of varied tits Parus varius was significantly higher at a 67 ha site supplied with supplementary food, compared to a 46 ha control (unfed) site 3 km away (100% survival over the 51 day study period for 17 tits in the fed area vs. 70% survival for 20 tits from the control area). Many birds changed breeding partners in the control site, whereas pair bonds were maintained in the fed site. Food consisted of 500 g sunflower seeds provided two or three times a week from seven feeders, each at least 150 m from each other. Feeders were visited on average 30 times/hr by three individuals.