Individual study: Evaluating native perennial plants for use on field margins as floral resources for bees, Michigan State University Entomology Research Farm, Michigan, USA
Tuell J.K., Fiedler A.K., Landis D. & Isaacs R. (2008) Visitation by wild and managed bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) to eastern US native plants for use in conservation programs. Environmental Entomology, 37, 707-718
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Plant dedicated floral resources on farmland
Tuell et al. (2008) evaluated native perennial plant species in the eastern USA for their attractiveness to wild bees in a replicated experiment (five replicate 1 m2 plots of each species). Nine out of 43 species were highly attractive to bees, having an average of five or more wild bees per m2 plot in vacuum sampling or timed observation. These were Potentilla fruticosa, Scrophularia marilandica, Veronicastrum virginicum, Ratibida pinnata, Agastache nepetoides, Silphium perfoliatum, Lobelia siphilitica, Solidago riddellii and Solidago speciosa. Three other plant species (Zizia aurea, Fragaria virginiana and Coreopsis lanceolata) were identified as attractive to wild bees in the early season (May and June), a crucial time for early-emerging bee species, when flowers are generally less abundant.