Individual study: Electric fencing around least tern Sterna antillarum nesting colony prevents predation by red fox Vulpes vulpes at Nauset Spit, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA
Minsky D. (1980) Preventing fox predation at a least tern colony with an electric fence. Journal of Field Ornithology, 51, 180-181
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Protect bird nests using electric fencing
A before-and-after study in 1978 on a beach in Massachusetts, USA (Minsky 1980) found that the number of least tern Sterna antillarum nests in a colony decreased from 138 to 45 between the 20th and 23rd June (red fox Vulpes vulpes tracks were found in the colony), before the erection of an electric fence around the colony on the 24th June. The number of nests increased to 85 following the erection of the fence and no new fox tracks were found within the colony. No nests outside the fence survived. In total, 27 chicks fledged from the colony; the authors estimate that all, or nearly all, came from eggs laid after the erection of the fence.