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Providing evidence to improve practice

Individual study: The effects of nest box provision on great tit Parus major densities in deciduous versus coniferous woodlands in southwest Estonia

Published source details

Mänd R., Tilgar V., Lõhmus A. & Leivits A. (2005) Providing nest boxes for hole-nesting birds – Does habitat matter? Biodiversity and Conservation, 14, 1823-1840


This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.

Provide artificial nesting sites for songbirds Bird Conservation

A replicated trial in 1995-2000 in both deciduous and coniferous forests in Pärnu County, Estonia (Mand et al. 2005), found that great tits Parus major laying in nest boxes had significantly higher breeding success in coniferous forests, compared to those in deciduous woods, with heavier fledglings and higher recruitment (8.1 fledglings/pair, 17.5 g/chick and 2% recruitment for coniferous forest vs. 7.7 fledglings/pair, 16.8 g/chick and 1.1% recruitment for deciduous). However, tits laid earlier and had larger clutches and eggs in the deciduous forest (first egg on 29th April, 10.9 eggs/clutch and 1.7 ml/egg for deciduous vs. 30th April, 10.6 eggs/clutch and 1.6 ml/egg for coniferous). They also occupied a higher proportion of nest boxes in deciduous forest, although it should be noted that only half the number of boxes were erected (approximately 20% occupancy of 500-600 boxes in deciduous vs. 9% of 1,200-1,300 in conifers).