Collisions between birds and windows: mortality and prevention

  • Published source details Klem D. Jr. (1990) Collisions between birds and windows: mortality and prevention. Journal of Field Ornithology, 61, 120-128.


This study is summarised as evidence for the following.

Action Category

Mark or tint windows to reduce collision mortality

Action Link
Bird Conservation
  1. Mark or tint windows to reduce collision mortality

    A randomised, replicated and controlled study over 52 days in Illinois, USA (Klem 1990), found that marking windows in various ways did not reduce the number of birds colliding with the windows, compared to an unmarked control window. Similarly, a randomised, repeated and controlled choice experiment in a flight cage found that dark-eyed juncos Junco hyemalis did not consistently avoid windows marked with wind chimes, silhouettes of falcons, plants, stickers of eyes or model owls. However, birds tended to avoid windows that were completely covered by white cloth, or covered by closely spaced cloth strips and meshes. Widely spaced cloth strips and flashing lights partially increased avoidance.

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