Individual study: Supplemental winter feeding does not promote dependency in black-capped chickadees Parus atricapillus in Sauk County, Wisconsin, USA
Brittingham M.C. & Temple S.A. (1992) Does winter bird feeding promote dependency? Journal of Field Ornithology, 63, 190-194
This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.
Provide supplementary food for songbirds to increase adult survival
A controlled study in Wisconsin, USA, over five months in the winter of 1984-5 (Brittingham & Temple 1992) found that, following the removal of supplementary food, 49 black-capped chickadees Parus atricapillus did not have lower survival at a site where they had previously been provided with supplementary food, compared with 35 control chickadees, at a site where they had never been fed (84% monthly survival for previously-fed birds vs. 85% for controls). Food had been provided for 25 winters at the experimental site.