Evaluation of a compensation scheme to bring about Maasai pastoralist tolerance of lions Panthera leo, around Amboseli National Park, south-west Kenya

  • Published source details Maclennan S.D., Groom R.J., Macdonald D.W. & Frank L.G. (2009) Evaluation of a compensation scheme to bring about pastoralist tolerance of lions. Biological Conservation, 142, 2419-2427


This study is summarised as evidence for the following.

Action Category

Pay farmers to compensate for losses due to predators/wild herbivores to reduce human-wildlife conflict

Action Link
Terrestrial Mammal Conservation
  1. Pay farmers to compensate for losses due to predators/wild herbivores to reduce human-wildlife conflict

    A before-and-after, site comparison study in 2001–2006 on a group ranch in Kajiado District, Kenya (Maclennan et al. 2009) found that compensating pastoralists for livestock predated by lions Panthera leo reduced the number of lions that pastoralists killed. Fewer lions were killed after the compensation fund commenced (five in 2003–2006) than before the fund commenced (24 in 2001–2002). Across five other group ranches, which lacked compensation funds, lion killings rose from nine in 2003 to 20 in 2004, 17 in 2005 and 32 in 2006. The lion population on the ranch where compensation was paid did not rise during the study period. The scheme was suspended from June 2003 to January 2004, April–June 2005 and in October 2005. At other times, pastoralists were compensated at market values for verified livestock losses to predators. Lower payments were made in cases of suboptimal animal husbandry. Fines were imposed for killing lions or other large predators.

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