Individual study: Effects of raised nesting areas and electric-fence exclosures on nesting success of least terns Sterna antillarum and snowy plovers Charadrius alexandrinus at Salt Plains National Wildlife Refuge, Oklahoma, USA
Koenen M.T., Utych R.B. & Leslie D.M. Jr. (1996) Methods used to improve least tern and snowy plover nesting success on alkaline flats. Journal of Field Ornithology, 67, 281-291
This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.
Provide nesting habitat for birds that is safe from extreme weather
A replicated, controlled trial in on alkaline flats in Oklahoma, USA, between 1991 and 1994 (Koenen et al. 1996), found that nesting success of least terns Sterna antillarum and snowy plovers Charadrius alexandrinus was not higher on nesting ridges designed to protect nests from flooding, compared to nests not on ridges (terns: 53% of 32 nests on ridges vs. 53% of 28 nests off ridges; plovers: 79% of 22 nests on ridges vs. 62% of 26 nests off ridges). The proportions of nests lost to flooding were similar on and off the ridges for both species. This study is also discussed in ‘Protect bird nests using electric fencing’.
Protect bird nests using electric fencing
A replicated, controlled trial from 1991-1994 on alkaline flats in Oklahoma, USA (Koenen et al. 1996) found that the nesting success (i.e. at least one egg hatching in a nest) of least terns Sterna antillarum was significantly higher inside two electric fence exclosures than outside (81% of 60 nests vs. 56% of 129 nests respectively). The same pattern was seen for snowy plovers Charadrius alexandrinus, but the difference was not significant (79% of 22 nests vs. 62% of 26 nests). The proportion of both tern and plover eggs predated (mainly by coyotes Canis latrans) was lower inside the fence (10% vs. 20% predation for terns; 6% vs. 11% for plovers. The fence was 86 cm high and designed to prevent coyotes from entering. This study is also discussed in ‘Provide nesting habitat for birds that is safe from extreme weather’.