Study

Reproductive success of natterjack toads Bufo calamita in two contrasting habitats

  • Published source details Banks B. & Beebee T.J.C. (1988) Reproductive success of natterjack toads Bufo calamita in two contrasting habitats. Journal of Animal Ecology, 57, 475-492.

Actions

This study is summarised as evidence for the following.

Action Category

Create ponds for natterjack toads

Action Link
Amphibian Conservation
  1. Create ponds for natterjack toads

    A replicated, site comparison study in 1982–1984 of created and natural ponds at a dune and heathland site in England, UK (Banks & Beebee 1988) found that artificial ponds had lower natterjack toad Bufo calamita tadpole mortality from desiccation, but higher mortality due to predation by invertebrates compared to natural ponds. Invertebrate predator numbers tended to increase with pond permanence. Artificial ponds had been designed to be deeper than most natural ponds (62–95 vs 9–45 cm). Six artificial scrapes were made in 1980 at the dune site, which had 100 natural freshwater ponds (23–63 monitored/year). At the heathland site, natterjacks used 2–3 natural ponds and three artificial scrapes created in the 1970s. Natterjacks were monitored in April–July, 1982–1984 by counting egg strings, netting and undertaking a mark-recapture study of tadpoles.

     

Output references
What Works 2021 cover

What Works in Conservation

What Works in Conservation provides expert assessments of the effectiveness of actions, based on summarised evidence, in synopses. Subjects covered so far include amphibians, birds, mammals, forests, peatland and control of freshwater invasive species. More are in progress.

More about What Works in Conservation

Download free PDF or purchase
The Conservation Evidence Journal

The Conservation Evidence Journal

An online, free to publish in, open-access journal publishing results from research and projects that test the effectiveness of conservation actions.

Read the latest volume: Volume 18

Go to the CE Journal

Discover more on our blog

Our blog contains the latest news and updates from the Conservation Evidence team, the Conservation Evidence Journal, and our global partners in evidence-based conservation.


Who uses Conservation Evidence?

Meet some of the evidence champions

Endangered Landscape Programme Red List Champion - Arc Kent Wildlife Trust The Rufford Foundation Save the Frogs - Ghana Bern wood Supporting Conservation Leaders National Biodiversity Network Sustainability Dashboard Frog Life The international journey of Conservation - Oryx British trust for ornithology Cool Farm Alliance UNEP AWFA Butterfly Conservation People trust for endangered species Vincet Wildlife Trust