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Providing evidence to improve practice

Individual study: A comparison of reproductive success of natterjack toads Bufo calamita using natural and artificial breeding sites, Drigg dunes (Cumbria) and Woolmer Forest (Hampshire), England

Published source details

Banks B. & Beebee T.J.C. (1988) Reproductive success of natterjack toads Bufo calamita in two contrasting habitats. Journal of Animal Ecology, 57, 475-492


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Create ponds for natterjack toads Amphibian Conservation

A replicated, site comparison study in 1982–1984 of created and natural ponds at a dune and heathland site in England, UK (Banks & Beebee 1988) found that artificial ponds had lower natterjack toad Bufo calamita tadpole mortality from desiccation, but higher mortality due to predation by invertebrates compared to natural ponds. Invertebrate predator numbers tended to increase with pond permanence. Artificial ponds had been designed to be deeper than most natural ponds (62–95 vs 9–45 cm). Six artificial scrapes were made in 1980 at the dune site, which had 100 natural freshwater ponds (23–63 monitored/year). At the heathland site, natterjacks used 2–3 natural ponds and three artificial scrapes created in the 1970s. Natterjacks were monitored in April–July, 1982–1984 by counting egg strings, netting and undertaking a mark-recapture study of tadpoles.