Effect of nest box provision on breeding density of great tits Parus major in coniferous and deciduous forest around Kilingi-Nõmme, Pärnu, Estonia

  • Published source details Mänd R., Leivits A., Leivits M. & Rodenhouse N.L. (2009) Provision of nestboxes raises the breeding density of great tits Parus major equally in coniferous and deciduous woodland. Ibis, 151, 487-492


This study is summarised as evidence for the following.

Action Category

Provide artificial nesting sites for songbirds

Action Link
Bird Conservation
  1. Provide artificial nesting sites for songbirds

    A long-term controlled paired sites study (Mand et al. 2009) in the same Estonian sites as in Mand et al. 2005 found that the breeding density of great tits Parus major was significantly higher in areas with nest boxes in, compared to areas with no boxes. This held for all 13 pairs of transects in both deciduous (5.2 pairs/km for six transects in nest box areas vs. 1.8 pairs/km for six in control areas) and coniferous forests (3.3 pairs/km for seven transects in nest box areas vs. 0.2 pairs/km for seven in control areas). Over 1,000 nest boxes were erected in the experimental areas in the 1970s, on trees 1.5-2.0 m above ground.


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