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Providing evidence to improve practice

Individual study: Preference of fallow deer Dama dama for underpasses with pale coloured walls, Germany

Published source details

Woelfel H. & Krueger H.H. (1995) On the design of game passages across highways. Zeitschrift für Jagdwissenschaft, 41, 209-216


This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.

Install tunnels/culverts/underpass under roads Terrestrial Mammal Conservation

A replicated study in 1994 of tunnels in enclosures in Germany (Woelfel & Krueger 1995) found that use of tunnels by fallow deer Dama dama was affected by tunnel colour and design. Deer used one tunnel significantly more in four of six paired trials. A white-painted tunnel was used more than a grey-painted tunnel (732 vs 425 passages) and also more than a black-painted tunnel (294 vs 153 passages). A black base was used more than one without a base (747 vs 584 passage). An unlit tunnel was used more than an indirectly-lit tunnel (581 vs 242). There was no significant difference in the use of tunnels with and without tree stumps within them. Two tunnels were erected in a 0.7-ha enclosure, each 2 m high, 2 m wide and 8 m long. Twenty deer accessed food through the tunnels. Tunnel use was registered by a photo-electric sensor. Trials were run with six tunnel design combinations: both tunnels unpainted; white vs grey; white vs black; black base (and 80 cm up sides) vs no base; indirect light on ceiling vs unlit; tree stumps in tunnel vs no stumps. Tunnels were painted off-white for base, lighting and tree stump trials.

(Summarised by Rebecca K. Smith)