Providing evidence to improve practice

Individual study: An unsuccessful re-introduction attempt of a wild-born captive chimpanzee Pan troglodytes, Kibale National Park, Uganda

Published source details

Treves A. & Naughton-Treves L. (1997) Case study of a chimpanzee recovered from poachers and temporarily released with wild conspecifics. Primates, 38, 315-324


This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.

Involve local community in primate research and conservation management Primate Conservation

A before-and-after-trial in 1995 in Kibale National Park, Uganda found that a female captive, wild-born chimpanzee Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii that was part of a reintroduction project into which the local community was involved alongside other interventions, repeatedly returned to human settlements post-release and was subsequently returned to captivity. Eight days after her initial release, the 4-6 year old chimpanzee left the forest and was subsequently returned into the forest by project staff. For the following ten days, she travelled, fed, nested and engaged in social activities with the wild chimpanzee group. During this time, she increased ranging distance to humans and use of height, and visually monitored humans less regularly. However, the proportion of adult males in her vicinity decreased and she increasingly spent time alone. She was returned to captivity six weeks post-release. From the local community that initiated her confiscation from illegal captivity as a pet, at least ten community members worked directly and indirectly on the project. She was quarantined from humans, other than her caretakers, and wild chimpanzees, underwent pre-release training for three weeks before reintroduction into habitat with a resident wild population and had a tuberculosis test. The study does not distinguish between the effects of the different interventions mentioned above.

Implement quarantine for primates before reintroduction/translocation Primate Conservation

A before-and-after-trial in 1995 in Kibale National Park, Uganda found that a female captive, 4-6 year old wild-born chimpanzee Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii that was quarantined before reintroduction into a human-habituated community of wild chimpanzees alongside other interventions, repeatedly returned to human settlements post-release and was subsequently returned to captivity. Eight days after the initial release, she left the forest for the first time and was brought back into the forest. For the following ten days, she travelled, fed, nested and engaged in social activities with the wild chimpanzees. During this time, she increased ranging distance to humans and use of height, and visually monitored humans less regularly. However, the proportion of adult males in her vicinity decreased and she increasingly spent time alone. She was returned to captivity six weeks after her release. She was quarantined from humans, other than her caretakers, and wild chimpanzees and underwent a tuberculosis test. During this time, she also underwent pre-release training for three weeks before reintroduction into habitat with a resident wild community. At least ten community members worked on the project. The study does not distinguish between the effects of the different interventions mentioned above

Fostering appropriate behaviour to facilitate rehabilitation Primate Conservation

A before-and-after-trial in 1995 in a tropical forest in Kibale National Park, Uganda found that a female captive, 4-6 year old wild-born chimpanzee Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii that underwent pre-release training with caretakers in the forest before reintroduction into a human-habituated community of wild chimpanzees along with other interventions, repeatedly returned to human settlements after release and was subsequently returned to captivity. Eight days post-release, the chimpanzee left the forest and was returned to the forest. For the following ten days, she travelled, fed, nested and engaged in social activities with the wild community. She increased ranging distance to humans and use of height, and visually monitored humans less regularly. However, she increasingly spent more time alone and was returned to captivity six weeks after being released. During the three weeks of pre-release training in the forest, caretakers initiated progressions (up to 6 km) to reach known food sources, increase her endurance and improve her familiarity with the habitat. The chimpanzee was quarantined before reintroduction and was tested for tuberculosis. Ten community members worked on the project. The study does not distinguish between the effects of the different interventions mentioned above.

Conduct veterinary screens of animals before reintroducing/translocating them Primate Conservation

A before-and-after study in 1995 in Kibale National Park, Uganda found that a female captive, 4-6 year old wild-born chimpanzee Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii that underwent veterinary screens alongside other interventions, repeatedly returned to human settlements after her release and was subsequently returned to captivity. Eight days after her initial release, she left the forest and was brought back into the forest. The following ten days, she travelled, fed, nested and engaged in social activities with the wild community. During this time, she increased ranging distance to humans and use of height, and visually monitored humans less regularly. However, the proportion of adult males in her vicinity decreased and she increasingly spent time alone. She was returned to captivity six weeks after her release. A veterinary team administered a test of skin reactivity to tuberculin antigen to which she tested negative prior to her release. She underwent pre-release training for three weeks before reintroduction into habitat with a resident wild community. During this time, she was also quarantined. At least ten community members worked on the project. The study does not distinguish between the effects of the different interventions mentioned above.

Allow primates to adapt to local habitat conditions for some time before introduction to the wild Primate Conservation

A before-and-after-trial in 1995 in tropical forest in Kibale National Park, Uganda found that a female captive, 4-6 year old wild-born chimpanzee Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii that was allowed to adapt to local habitat conditions for three weeks before reintroduction into a human-habituated community of wild chimpanzees along with other interventions, repeatedly returned to human settlements and was subsequently returned to captivity. Eight days post-release, she left the forest for the first time and was taken back into the forest. For the following ten days, she travelled, fed, nested and engaged in social activities with the wild community. She increased ranging distance to humans and use of height, and visually monitored humans less regularly. However, she increasingly spent time alone and was returned to captivity six weeks after post-release. Three weeks before her introduction, caretakers recorded her activity, height off the ground, distance from nearest human and diet. She underwent pre-release training, a tuberculosis test and was quarantined before reintroduction into habitat with a resident wild chimpanzee community. Ten members of the local human community worked on the project. The study does not distinguish between the effects of the different interventions mentioned above.

Reintroduce primates into habitat where the species is present Primate Conservation

A before-and-after-trial in 1995 in a montane forest in Uganda found that a captive female, wild-born chimpanzee Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii that was, along with other interventions, reintroduced into a human-habituated community of wild chimpanzees, repeatedly returned to human settlements after its release and was subsequently returned to captivity. Eight days after its initial release, the chimpanzee left the forest for the first time and was returned to the forest. For the following ten days, it travelled, fed, nested and engaged in social activities with the wild community. During this time, it increased ranging distance to humans and use of height, and visually monitored humans less regularly. The chimpanzee was returned to captivity six weeks after her release. It underwent pre-release training for three weeks before reintroduction. During this time, it was tested for tuberculosis and was quarantined. The study does not distinguish between the effects of the different interventions mentioned above.