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Providing evidence to improve practice

Individual study: Success of releases of wild-caught and captive-bred thick-billed parrots Rhynchopsitta pachyrhyncha in the Chiricahua Mountains, Arizona, USA

Published source details

Snyder N.F.R., Koenig S.E., Koschmann J., Snyder H.A. & Johnson T.B. (1994) Thick-billed parrot releases in Arizona. The Condor, 96, 845-862


This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.

Artificially incubate and hand-rear parrots in captivity Bird Conservation

A study in southeast Arizona, USA (Snyder et al. 1994), released seven hand-reared thick-billed parrots Rhynchopsitta pachyrhyncha into the Chiricahua Mountains between September 1986 and September 1993 as part of a wider release and translocation programme. None was alive a month after release. This was significantly lower survival than wild-caught birds translocated as part of the same programme. This study is discussed in more detail in ‘Release captive-bred individuals’, ‘Translocate Individuals’ and ‘Use holding pens at release sites’.

 

Use holding pens at release sites Bird Conservation

A replicated study in south-eastern Arizona, USA (Snyder et al. 1994), found that survival in thick-billed parrots Rhynchopsitta pachyrhyncha translocated and released into the Chiricahua Mountains between September 1986 and September 1993 was higher for birds that were released without preparation into the wild, compared to those that were soft-released. This difference held both for all birds (26% of 69 soft release birds alive after two months vs. 48% of 23 ‘standard release’ birds) and for wild-caught birds (37% of 49 soft release birds vs. 63% of 16 standard releases). Soft release involved preconditioning to the local environment and supplying birds with local food while in captivity. This study is discussed in more detail in ‘Release captive-bred individuals’ and ‘Translocate individuals’.

 

Release captive-bred individuals into the wild to restore or augment wild populations of parrots Bird Conservation

A replicated study in 1986-93 in pine forests in south-eastern Arizona, USA (Snyder et al. 1994), found that captive-bred thick-billed parrots Rhynchopsitta pachyrhyncha released into the wild were significantly less likely to survive for two months after survival than translocated birds caught from the wild (4% survival for 23 captive-bred birds vs. 41% for 69 wild birds). This study is also discussed in ‘Translocate individuals’ and ‘Use holding pens at release sites’.

 

 

Translocate parrots Bird Conservation

A replicated study in southeastern Arizona, USA (Snyder et al. 1994), reintroduced 88 thick-billed parrots Rhynchopsitta pachyrhyncha into the Chiricahua Mountains between September 1986 and September 1993. Survival two months after release was significantly higher for wild birds caught as adults, compared to parrots caught as juveniles or captive-bred birds, either parent- or hand-reared (6.3% survival for 16 captive-bred, parent-reared birds vs. 0% for four hand-reared birds, 0% for four wild birds caught at juveniles and 43% for 65 wild birds caught as adults). Translocated birds were known to fly more than 110 km away from the release site, with small groups returning each autumn to the Chiricahua Mountains, where at least one pair producing two fledglings. This study is also discussed in ‘Release captive-bred individuals’ and ‘Use holding pens at release sites’.