Comparison of the avian communities of 'mitigation' versus natural forested wetlands in the Chowan River basin, Virginia, USA

  • Published source details Snell-Rood E.C. & Cristol D.A. (2003) Avian communities of created and natural wetlands: bottomland forests in Virginia. The Condor, 105, 303-315


This study is summarised as evidence for the following.

Action Category

Restore or create inland wetlands

Action Link
Bird Conservation
  1. Restore or create inland wetlands

    A replicated, controlled study from May-July in 2000 in Virginia, USA (Snell-Rood & Cristol 2003), found that bird species richness and diversity in artificially created wetlands were significantly lower than in natural wetlands (average of 11 species/site for six artificial wetlands vs. 17 for five natural wetlands). Although total bird abundance, and the abundance of wading birds, waterfowl, raptors, aerial feeders or woodpeckers were similar, natural wetlands had significantly higher songbird abundance. In addition, created wetlands exhibited bird communities with significantly lower conservation value (based trophic level and migratory status) but similar average habitat specificity and wetland dependency. All wetlands had similar surrounding habitats and were of similar ages (time since planting for created and since logging for natural wetlands), and sizes (5-15 ha).


Output references

What Works in Conservation

What Works in Conservation provides expert assessments of the effectiveness of actions, based on summarised evidence, in synopses. Subjects covered so far include amphibians, birds, terrestrial mammals, forests, peatland and control of freshwater invasive species. More are in progress.

More about What Works in Conservation

Download free PDF or purchase
The Conservation Evidence Journal

The Conservation Evidence Journal

An online, free to publish in, open-access journal publishing results from research and projects that test the effectiveness of conservation actions.

Read the latest volume: Volume 17

Go to the CE Journal

Subscribe to our newsletter

Please add your details if you are interested in receiving updates from the Conservation Evidence team about new papers, synopses and opportunities.

Who uses Conservation Evidence?

Meet some of the evidence champions

Endangered Landscape Programme Red List Champion - Arc Kent Wildlife Trust The Rufford Foundation Save the Frogs - Ghana Bern wood Supporting Conservation Leaders National Biodiversity Network Sustainability Dashboard Frog Life The international journey of Conservation - Oryx British trust for ornithology Cool Farm Alliance UNEP AWFA Butterfly Conservation People trust for endangered species Vincet Wildlife Trust