Extinction and reintroduction of Parnassius apollo in the Pieniny National Park (Polish Carpathians)

  • Published source details Witkowski Z.J., Adamski P., Kosior A. & Plonka P (1997) Extinction and reintroduction of Parnassius apollo in the Pieniny National Park (Polish Carpathians). Biologia, 52, 199-208.


This study is summarised as evidence for the following.

Action Category

Remove or control non-native or problematic plants

Action Link
Butterfly and Moth Conservation
  1. Remove or control non-native or problematic plants

    A before-and-after study in 1991–1994 in a limestone montane grassland reserve in southern Poland (Witkowski et al 1997) found that removing trees and shrubs, in addition to releasing captive bred adults and pupae, increased Apollo butterfly Parnassius apollo numbers, and allowed adults from two previously separated populations to mix. Removing trees and shrubs from an area with two small, separated populations of Apollo butterflies, along with releasing captive bred individuals, increased the total number of adults observed from 22 in 1991 to 60 in 1994. Mark-recapture surveys estimated that the total population increased from 44 adults in 1992 to 67 in 1994, and showed that the previously separated populations were mixing. In 1992, trees and shrubs were removed from an area of scree in the Pieniny Mountains, creating a corridor between the locations of two Apollo butterfly populations. From 1991–1994, captive bred butterflies were also released annually at the site (339 males, 362 females and four pupae in total). Butterfly numbers were recorded each year but survey details are not provided. Mark-recapture surveys were also conducted in 1992–1994 to estimate population size and determine connectivity between the original two populations.

    (Summarised by: Eleanor Bladon)

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