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Providing evidence to improve practice

Individual study: Evaluation of three repellents for the prevention of damage to olive seedlings by fallow deer Dama dama, San Rossore, Toscana, Italy

Published source details

Santilli F., Mori L. & Galardi L. (2004) Evaluation of three repellents for the prevention of damage to olive seedlings by deer. European Journal of Wildlife Research, 50, 85-89


This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.

Use repellents that taste bad (‘contact repellents’) to deter crop or property damage by mammals to reduce human-wildlife conflict Terrestrial Mammal Conservation

A replicated, controlled study in 2001 on a site in Italy (Santilli et al. 2004) found that two of three repellents significantly reduced browsing of olive trees Olea europaea by fallow deer Dama dama for three weeks following application. A lower proportion of plants treated with Eutrofit was browsed, relative to untreated plants, at one, two and three weeks after application (reductions relative to untreated plants of 100%, 71% and 41% respectively). Tree Guard similarly reduced the proportions of plants browsed relative to untreated plants (by 82%, 82% and 55% after one, two and three weeks respectively). Reductions in the proportions of plants treated with Hot Sauce® that were browsed relative to untreated plants (64%, 12% and 9% after one, two and three weeks respectively) were not significant. From four weeks onwards, no repellent reduced browsing relative to untreated trees. Olive cuttings, 1 year old and about 20 cm high, were planted in five blocks of 20 plants. In each block, five plants each were treated each with the commercially available repellents, Eutrofit, Tree Guard and Hot Sauce®, following manufacturer instructions. Browsing damage was assessed weekly, for eight weeks.

(Summarised by Nick Littlewood)